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IrOx–carbon nanotube hybrids: A nanostructured material for electrodes with increased charge capacity in neural systems

IrOx–carbon nanotube hybrids: A nanostructured material for electrodes with increased charge capacity in neural systems

Acta Biomaterialia, Volume 10, Issue 10, October 2014, Pages 4548–4558.     Nina M. Carretero, Mathieu P. Lichtenstein, Estela Pérez, Laura Cabana, Cristina Suñol, Nieves Casañ-Pastor

Beyond Intercalation-Based Li-Ion Batteries: The State of the Art and Challenges of Electrode Materials Reacting Through Conversion Reactions

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11102010

Jordi Cabana, Laure Monconduit, Dominique Larcher, M. Rosa Palacín1,*, 
Adv. Mater. 2010, 22, E170-E192

DOI: 10.1002/adma.201000717

Despite the imminent commercial introduction of Li-ion batteries in electric drive vehicles and their proposed use as enablers of smart grids based on renewable energy technologies, an intensive quest for new electrode materials that bring about improvements in energy density, cycle life, cost, and safety is still underway. This Progress Report highlights the recent developments and the future prospects of the use of phases that react through conversion reactions as both positive and negative electrode materials in Li-ion batteries. By moving beyond classical intercalation reactions, a variety of low cost compounds with gravimetric specific capacities that are two-to-five times larger than those attained with currently used materials, such as graphite and LiCoO2, can be achieved. Nonetheless, several factors currently handicap the applicability of electrode materials entailing conversion reactions. These factors, together with the scientific breakthroughs that are necessary to fully assess the practicality of this concept, are reviewed in this report.

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