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Enhanced Thermal Oxidation Stability of Reduced Graphene Oxide by Nitrogen Doping

Enhanced Thermal Oxidation Stability of Reduced Graphene Oxide by Nitrogen Doping

Stefania Sandoval, Nitesh Kumar, Dr.  A. Sundaresan, Prof. C. N. R. Rao*, Prof. Amparo Fuertes and Dr. Gerard Tobias*. Chemistry - A European Journal, Volume 20, Issue 38, pages 11999–12003, September 15, 2014

Solid-State Processing of Organic Semiconductors

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Mohammed A. Baklar, Felix Koch, Avinesh Kumar, Ester Buchaca Domingo, Mariano Campoy-Quiles, Kirill Feldman, Liyang Yu, Paul Wobkenberg, James Ball, Rory M. Wilson, Iain McCulloch, Theo Kreouzis, Martin Heeney, Thomas Anthopoulos, Paul Smith, and Natalie Stingelin*,

Adv. Mater. 2010, 22, 3942–3947



DOI: 10.1002/adma.200904448

The term “plastic crystals” is generally used to refer to crystalline solids that feature a remarkably high molecular mobility in certain solid states and, hence, typically are characterized by a relatively small entropy of fusion, often accompanied by a comparatively high melting temperature.1–3 Classical examples of such materials are CBr4, C2Cl6, pentaerythritol, cyclohexane, camphor, etc.—generally species that originally were classified by Timmermans in the 1930s as “globular”.1–3 More recently, selected organic salts that are attracting attention as solid-state conductors in applications such as lithium ion batteries also have been demonstrated to feature plastic crystalline phases.4–6 The high molecular mobility in such solids results in a high plasticity, similar to that observed in many metals.7 This characteristic is not restricted to small-molecular organic compounds, but is also observed in certain polymers. A major, commercially exploited case-in-point is that of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE, better known as Teflon).8, 9 This uniquely hydrophobic polymer is typically of ultrahigh molecular weight (Mw > 5·106 g mol−1) and, as a consequence, is of ultrahigh viscosity. PTFE is, therefore, considered to be non-melt-processable, nor is it soluble in common solvents. However, this widely employed polymer is routinely processed in the solid state at temperatures of 200 °C below its melting point, often assisted by a lubricant in a process known as paste extrusion.9 Similarly, it has been demonstrated that selected grades of ultrahigh molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMW PE) can be processed into useful shapes simply by compression molding below their melting temperature, for instance into mechanically coherent films, and transformed by tensile deformation—also in the solid state—into ultrahigh strength fibers and tapes.10





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