Role of Manganese in Lithium- and Manganese-Rich Layered Oxides Cathodes
J. Phys. Chem. Lett.201910XXX3359-3368.
Lithium-rich transition-metal-oxide cathodes are among the most promising materials for next generation lithium-ion-batteries because they operate at high voltages and deliver high capacities. However, their cycle-life remains limited, and individual roles of the transition-metals are still not fully understood. Using bulk-sensitive X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy on Li[Li0.2Ni0.16Mn0.56Co0.08]O2, we inspect the behavior of Mn, generally considered inert upon the electrochemical process. During the first charge Mn appears to be redox-active showing a partial transformation from high-spin Mn4+ to Mn3+ in both high and low spin configurations, where the latter is expected to favor reversible cycling. The Mn redox-state with cycling continues changing in opposition to the expected charge compensation and is correlated with Ni oxidation/reduction, also spatially. The findings suggest that strain induced on the Mn–O sublattice by Ni oxidation triggers Mn reduction. These results unravel the Mn role in controlling the electrochemistry of Li-rich cathodes.Role of Manganese in Lithium- and Manganese-Rich Layered Oxides Cathodes
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