The known problems of current liquid electrolyte lithium and sodium batteries vis a vis dendrite growth and subsequent short-circuiting drive the search for non-flammable electrolytes including ceramic materials. To compete with liquid electrolytes, ceramic and glass equivalent materials must offer Li+/Na+ conductivities of the order of 0.1-5 mS/cm at thicknesses of 15-50 µm to compete with liquid electrolyte/polymer separator systems currently in use. In addition, they must also offer robust mechanical properties to withstand deformation both in use and especially during fabrication of ASBs.
Still a further problem comes when one wants to mate individual components (anode/electrolyte/cathode) uniformly in the assembly of ASBs. We describe here general methods of using flame made nanopowders (NPs) to minimize the external energy input for sintering a wide variety of thin ceramic films including traditional ceramic electrolytes such as LATSP, Li7La3Zr2O12, and β’’-Al2O3. Some work on composite cathode materials is also presented. We further explore methods of making “ceramic adhesives” that may allow easy assembly of all ASBs.