Synchrotron radiation based techniques are powerful tools for battery research and allow probing a wide range of length scales, with different depth sensitivities and spatial/temporal resolutions. Operando experiments enable characterization during functioning of the cell and are thus a precious tool to elucidate the reaction mechanisms taking place. In this perspective, the current state of the art for the most relevant techniques (scattering, spectroscopy, and imaging) is discussed together with the bottlenecks to address, either specific for application in the battery field or more generic.
The former includes the improvement of cell designs, multi-modal characterization and development of protocols for automated or at least semi-automated data analysis to quickly process the huge amount of data resulting from operando experiments. Given the recent evolution in these areas, accelerated progress is expected in the years to come, which should in turn foster battery performance improvements.
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