Ca- and Mg-based batteries represent a more sustainable alternative to Li-ion batteries. However, multivalent cation technologies suffer from poor cation mass transport. In addition, the development of positive electrodes enabling reversible charge storage currently represents one of the major challenges. Organic positive electrodes, in addition to being the most sustainable and potentially low-cost candidates, compared with their inorganic counterparts, currently present the best electrochemical performances in Ca and Mg cells.
Unfortunately, organic positive electrodes suffer from relatively low capacity retention upon cycling, the origin of which is not yet fully understood. Here, 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride-derived polyimide was tested in Li, Na, Mg, and Ca cells for the sake of comparison in terms of redox potential, gravimetric capacities, capacity retention, and rate capability. The redox mechanisms were also investigated by means of operando IR experiments, and a parameter affecting most figures of merit has been identified: the presence of contact ion-pairs in the electrolyte.
Sustainable energy conversion & storage systems
Polyimides as Promising Cathodes for Metal–Organic Batteries: A Comparison between Divalent (Ca2+, Mg2+) and Monovalent (Li+, Na+) Cations
Damien Monti, Nagaraj Patil, Ashley P. Black, Dionysios Raptis, Andreas Mavrandonakis, George E. Froudakis, Ibraheem Yousef, Nicolas Goujon, David Mecerreyes, Rebeca Marcilla*, and Alexandre Ponrouch*
ACS Appl. Energy Mater. 2023, 6, 13, 7250–7257